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During this out-of-this-world lab, talk to astronauts, learn about how Israel is changing the game in space technology and experience the teamwork of the many people who help humankind touch the stars. Participants will have a chance to cook and dine with Lindsay and Gil. Bring your appetites! Join a discussion about the Civil Rights movement with some of its most prominent leaders and better understand how the intersection of race, gender and poverty have grounding in Jewish learning.
Facilitator: Johnny Duncan, President, Duncan Consulting Incorporated Creating Hope with 3D-Printed Limbs Limbitless Solutions Join the founder of Limbitless Solutions, a non-profit organization dedicated to providing children with 3D-printed bionic limbs at affordable costs, and a recipient of a bionic arm, to learn about how innovation and technology are changing lives every day.
Participants will get a chance to work with bionic limb molds, use 3D printers and learn how the engineers are finding solutions for children with disabilities. Participants will engage with speakers and enjoy learning from some of the most influential professionals in the field.
Hear from experts and inspiring speakers to collect the tools you need to fight for a more just world. To help those in need, Second Harvest Food Bank stores and distributes donated food to more than feeding partners. Last year, with the help of numerous donors, volunteers and a caring, committed community, the food bank distributed nearly 56 million meals. Spend the day volunteering with Second Harvest to see firsthand what it takes to change the lives of so many people throughout Central Florida.
This lab will be going off-site to Second Harvest Food Bank. Join faith leaders from a variety of backgrounds to learn how religion can unite communities in fighting for different causes and have the opportunity to do some interfaith dialoguing of your own. Participants will have the chance to interact with students from a local Muslim school and join a local Rabbi, Reverend and Imam from the Orlando community as they record a live radio podcast for their show, Three Wise Guys.
Bryan G. Join us to take a look at what Israel is all about from its society to its food to its politics. Participants in this lab will engage in a day of interactive learning and hands-on skills training, leaving you armed with new knowledge to help inform your personal Israel story.
Thompson, Ed. But what does military service really mean? Engage with those who have served and know what it really means to lead a life that embodies shared values, patriotism and sacrifice. In this interactive session, be inspired by their journeys and build skills to help you and your sister BBGs excel in your chosen fields.
Alephs and BBGs are both welcome. Hear from successful entrepreneurs representing multiple industries as they share their insider tips as to how they grew their brands. From there, participants will transition to the design of brand marketing, evaluate current trends and find out how to look like a million bucks in this interactive session with Jamie Feldman, BBG alumna and Style Editor at Huffington Post.
Work through your own design challenge and understand how to create fashion that is flattering for every figure and budget. They can transcend language, culture, gender and many other social barriers that humanity navigates. Participants should come ready to be active! This amazing organization recycles used soap provided by hotels and donates the products to impoverished people to prevent millions of hygiene-related deaths each year, reduce the morbidity rate for hygiene-related illnesses and encourage vigorous childhood development.
Learn more about their work, how you can be involved and participate in a hands-on service project. This lab will be going offsite to Clean the World. You will gain exposure to the fundamentals that are crucial to becoming a certified lifeguard and will be primed to return to your community and start training for your lifeguard certification.
Note: All participants in this lab must have strong swim skills to participate. Participants in this lab must bring athletic swimwear for this experience. Participants will volunteer with the Second Chance Wildlife Sanctuary, which houses and cares for exotic and abandoned wildlife that cannot be released into the wild.
Meet their residents, learn about their work and get your hands dirty through participation in hands-on projects to help rebuild, repair and reinforce elements of their property damaged by Hurricane Irma. This lab will be going off-site to Second Chance Wildlife Sanctuary. During this lab, learn how you can be an advocate for mental health and wellness. Find your internal rhythm through a drumming workshop, learn how to create social change through music and share your own songs in an improvisation exercise.
Participants on this lab should have a strong command of the Spanish language. Draw inspiration from two exclusive collections of American and European artists, participate in a painting workshop and learn about pursuing a career in the arts from a diverse panel of professionals currently in the field.
Learn from a world-class musician, see a live performance, meet the star of the Yiddish comedy web series, YidLife Crisis, take a dance class and hone your comedy skills in this interactive experience. You will be inspired by professional performers when you hear about their path to having careers in the arts. Afterwards, engage in a Hunger Project with Feeding Children Everywhere in a high-energy event working side-by-side packaging healthy meals for children and families in need.
The healthy meals you package will provide life-saving relief to children and families in need after devastating disasters. This lab will be going off-site to Feeding Children Everywhere. How can you be an advocate for our homeland after your BBYO experience? Hear from the leaders in the movement that work to ensure that Israel is treated fairly on campus and take the next step in becoming an Israel advocate for life. No matter where you are from, the advocacy skills shared in this session can be applied in any environment to inspire meaningful engagement with both academic and elected leaders.
Join this interactive session and engage with food and business experts working to create sustainable communities abroad and ultimately eliminate food waste. Join Matt Clifford of Barnana, a sustainable snack brand, and Dan MacCombie of Runa, a fair trade tea company, in conversation about building sustainable practices and setting up supply chains in every community.
Ever dream about narrating your own talk? Join the team from TED-Ed to find your voice and create lessons worth sharing. Participants will learn how to use a solution based approach that transforms their ideas into a presentation, and the presentation into a performance.
Join the Senior Director of the Miami Dolphins Foundation to understand what it takes to raise money for a large organization and the skills behind recruiting donors. Recruitment expert Matt Mattson will help you understand the power of human connection as you learn the ins and outs of philanthropy. Learn to identify what cause or issue you connect with and learn how to build a campaign filled with powerful messaging and strategy that makes an impact.
Experience how politics can be a tool to improve the world around you! Explore the connectivity of the Jewish people through the lens of food, and how the food of the Diaspora both links us and sets us apart. Join representatives from Moishe House, OneTable and the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee as they discuss how to bring global communities together through food.
Come hungry! Immerse yourselves in the news industry by learning from leading journalists working in print, broadcast and digital media. Have you attended, worked at or someday hope to run your own camp? Here is your chance to dig deeper into the skills, ideas and activities involved in being a great camp leader.
This is a perfect opportunity to build your resume so you can be the best CIT, counselor or future camp director. With your help, families will achieve the stability and independence they need to build a better life. Note: Participants in this lab must be 16 years of age or older, wear closed-toe shoes and long pants. This tragic event sparked an entire movement across Orlando as organizations and resources were established to support the victims of the shooting and their families while working for tolerance, acceptance and love in Orlando.
Join advocates and organizers from across Orlando for a discussion regarding identity, intersectionality and the response following the PULSE shooting. Facilitators: Dr. Join us in running their Member Grocery Center to provide low-cost grocery products to households in need. Leave with a better understanding of the difference each of us can make to help break the cycle of poverty, during Leads Day and back in our home communities.
This lab will be going off-site to United Against Poverty. Join activists, humanitarians and advocates from around the world who are working to support the most vulnerable populations, including victims of the refugee crisis, child trafficking and natural disasters. Learn what you can do to rally support in your communities.
Collect your ingredients from the farm before heading into the kitchen for a hands-on cooking class with a local chef. A society based on democracy and justice only works when the idea of public welfare is seen as important as individual welfare. This workshop utilizes singing as a vehicle to understand our role in society and society itself. So bring your best design ideas and come create your own sanctuary. Join us for a creative Mincha service about the connections we have to our people as a whole and as individuals.
What questions should you be asking as your explore and visit your top choice schools? Learn how to keep the core values of your BBYO experience alive in your college years. Explore the variety of Jewish student life experiences on college campuses and how to decide for yourself what is the right Jewish fit for you. At this time, we ask that all technology use is restricted to personal hotel rooms. We will be using traditional Orthodox melodies and practice. We will sing the prayers of Kabbalat Shabbat and use creative expression to ease us into our day of rest.
Join us for song, prayer, creativity and inspiration. We look to Shabbat each week for a moment to stop, reflect and look back on lessons learned and blessings shared over the week that was. However, while the siddurim may look similar, not every Jew looks the same, believes the same thing or connects in the same way. Join a Kabbalat Shabbat service that is about you. Join us as we each create our own service based on our different beliefs and customs.
Music and prayer speak the same language to the soul. Join us for a service full of prayer, meaning and some good old rock and roll. It is in this moment when your whole body is singing that you discover who you truly are. Jewish music works in the same way. Join us as we let prayer, music, lyrics and great beats lead us down a path of connecting to our Jewish identities. Trust us: you will be surprised at just how relevant they are today, so long after they were delivered to our ancestors.
Introduce yourself! Throughout life, we can have a greater perspective on our challenges, when we understand the challenges of others. For this, there is no better resource than your Brother Alephs. Together, we will build plans to triumph over challenges while strengthening our brotherhood and the Grand Order of the Aleph Zadik Aleph. What do you do in a difficult situation? Is there a right answer?
Come ready to debate difficult topics that will put your Jewish values to the test. Together, we will consider how we can embody the best of what Sam Beber envisioned for our communities around the Order. From the matriarchs and patriarchs of our People to the founders of our Movement, the Jewish people have always rejoiced in having a shared set of values and ideals that unite us. Grab your party hat and hop on over as we celebrate the strength of AZA. Together, we will explore what it means to build united communities for our peers and teens of all faiths.
Do not be the only one left on the island— hang with us! Directly or indirectly, experiences you have had and every person you have interacted with during your time in AZA has shaped the Jew that you are today. In this Separates experience, we will change the game. Historic events have shaped the Jewish people into a resilient tribe that has repeatedly overcome adversity.
Learn the basics of martial arts to conquer your roadblocks. We hope you will leave this session feeling empowered to beat your struggles alongside your Sister BBGs. Everything we do has impact, and as a global movement, our members can make a difference every day. You will get to draw, paint and talk with your fellow BBGs as you work together to bring truly unique artwork to life. We will build community with each other through conversation and try to understand the state of our world together.
If you want to figure out how to bring BBG values into your everyday conversations, this is the Separates for you. Welcome to The Girl Effect, a global movement that dares to define a new normal for girls around the world. Together, we must figure out how to bring that platform to girls around the world.
There is no one alive who is Youer than You. Want to know what has happened since our humble beginning in ? Talk, write, draw and connect with your Sister BBGs as we learn more about some of the strong women who came before us and stood up for what they believed in. We stand on their shoulders as we imagine the future we can build for ourselves.
Take time to reflect on the individuals who have made a mark on your past, influence your present and help shape your future. Learning how to express gratitude and then remembering to do it! Founded by BBG alumna and Facebook COO, Sheryl Sandberg, Lean In encourages girls to pursue their ambitions and change the conversation from what we are not and what we cannot do, to who we are and what we can do.
In BBG, our approach is bold, not bossy, and with an International Order like ours, we have all the support we need. Our commitment to pluralism and inclusivity has never been stronger, and we have incredible opportunities to learn from each other through roundtables, partnerships and cross-cultural exchanges. Together, we will explore how we can bring the spirit of togetherness home. S-Israel relationship. We welcome all current and prospective activists to discuss how they can get involved in campaigning for pro-Israel candidates in the U.
Come by to hear your summer favorites, and rock out to the music that makes BBYO move! Meet others who share your passion and think about how you can train for your future as a rabbi, cantor, educator, scholar, innovator or entrepreneur. All are welcome! It all begins with one remarkable person, one life-changing swab and one huge win: finding a match and a cure. You must be 18 years old to swab, but there is no age requirement to get involved. Learn some wordless melodies niggunim and enjoy the stories and songs of this unplugged Oneg.
Celebration Come sing, snack and welcome the new Hebrew month of Adar in style! Rosh Chodesh is traditionally a time for women to experience community, song and to celebrate the new month. It depends on who you are Join us for a country-wide range of experiences. This session will help rest and rejuvenate, leaving you feeling refreshed, clear-headed and focused.
Ever want to learn how comics take something hard or challenging and find humor in it? Explore ways to share your point of view and learn the tricks of writing and performing if you want to stand-up from a professional stand-up comedian! Help us wish for a lifetime of happiness for the Sabbath Bride and her lovely groom! Pick up some tools you can use this weekend and beyond and have fun while doing it!
Bring your instruments, including your voices and get ready to play! Join us for a reunion reception to celebrate and reminisce about our summer experiences. Join us for food and fun! Join us for a reunion reception as we reunite to celebrate our incredible summer. We will be joined by songleaders Josh Cohen and Julia Sabra!
Join us for a reunion reception to revisit a little of our summer magic. We will be joined by songleaders Stephen Brickman and Julia Sabra. Daniel, is characterized by strongly recumbent dorsal pronotal setae. With the same reasons, the present specimen from Hatay province S Turkey should be a new subspecies. The new subspecies, P. Arnold, It is easily distinguished from P.
It is only known from South Turkey now. From the type locality Hatay province Turkey. A key to the subspecies of Pseudovadonia livida Fabricius, 1. Abdomen and legs completely red P. Abdomen and legs black or at most partly red 2 2. Dorsal pronotal setae strongly erect Dorsal pronotal setae obliquely erect or recumbent Elytral coloration light-yellow.. Elytral coloration much darker brown Dorsal pronotal setae recumbent Dorsal pronotal setae more or less obliquely erect Dorsal pronotal setae thicker, yellow or dark yellow and stronger obliquely erect Dorsal pronotal setae thinner, dark-yellow and weaker obliquely erect Humanity space International almanac, 2 Suppl.
Pseudovadonia livida hatayensis ssp. Figure 2. A Ostracods of quaternary sediments of the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Within fitales and parafitales ostracods recovered Paracytherois sp. Towards the top of the core is recorded species of continental origin as Limnocythere sp. The ostracods are microcrustaceans with a wide ecological range that inhabit marine, brackish and freshwater environments. They are very sensitive to the chemical and physical changes in the environment, introducing changes in the species composition of the community and individuals morphological level.
Ostracods have a high potential as a proxy proxy-data in Quaternary paleoecological studies Carbonel et al. The aim of this study was to determine the diversity of ostracods present in Holocene sediments and provide new data for the reconstruction of paleoenvironment of the study area.
Above mean sea level m. The temperature and salinity of the water masses are vertically homogeneous along the estuary Fig. The roof of this core is located The sedimentological study found that the composition is sandy clay loam over all witness with interbedded layers of clayey silt laminated fine sands.
Metodology There was sampled the core KP60 Bis every 10cm. In addition there was calculated the index of diversity of Shannon-Wiener. The low section of the core, from them cm, turned out to be sterile. In the low sector of the core levels were registered of shells of very fragmented mollusks. Z1 cm There were situated remains of the mollusks Tagelus plebeius Lightfoot, , Nucula puelcha Orbigny, , Nuculana costelloleda whitensis Farinati, and briozoos of smoothed morphology.
The index of diversity of Shannon- Wiener presented values between 1 and 2,5. Z3 cm Recovered valves of mollusks assigned to Nuculana costelloleda whitensis Farinati, and Paraplica sp. As for the present ostracofauna two subzone differ: subzone A: he presents a great diversity with domain of species eurihalinas as Loxocythere variasculpta Whatley, Moguilevsky, Toy, Chadwick and Branches Fig.
They turn out to be exemplary adult and juvenile of Cyprideis salebrosa hartmanni Ramirez, Fig. Some copies presented the development of nodules of carbonate of calcium in the external face of the valves. In addition continental species are registered as: Limnocythere sp.
The index of diversity of Shannon-Wiener presented values between 2 and 3. Subzone B: the diversity is similar to the descripta for the subfield To but it diminishes the density. The low values of the index of diversity Shannon- Wiener indicate an environment with low content of nutrients and a level of energy raised.
This is demonstrated, in addition, by the presence of strata by numerous fragments of valves of mollusks and colonies of briozoos of smoothed morphology. The number of individuals would have been controlled by two factors: the quantity of nutrients in the column of water and the level of energy of the environment Carbonel, The form of the colonies of briozoos is considered to be a warning element of the degree of stability of the environment in which they develop since the development of colonies incrustantes is observed only in environments of high energy and tree-shaped colonies only they can develop in environments of low energy due to his fragility Moyano, ; Hageman et al.
On the other hand, the abundant presence of copies of species euhalinas as Ambostracon Ambostracon tenuireticulata; Cornucoquimba lutziana and Caudites ohmerti demonstrate an environment submareal since these species only develop in environments submareales of the estuary in conditions of stable salinity and without air exhibition. The specimens of recovered Tagelus plebeius shallow. For the exposed thing it is possible to deduce that the sediments were deposited in an environment submareal by low levels of nutrients and a high level of energy.
The increase of the density and high values of the index of Shannon-Wiener in the top part of the core cm indicate conditions of minor energy with major quantity of available nutrients. The presence of briozoos tree-shaped fragile that only can develop in environments of low energy is another indicator of the environmental conditions. The presence of species fitales and parafitales Paracytherois sp. The presence of nodules of CaCO3 in specimens of the genus Cyprideis prove to be a character linked to the environment, and develop only under high salinity Carbonel, The ostracods are an effective tool to enhance and paleoenvironmental ecological studies.
E Quaternary ostracodes of continental and transitional littoral-shallow marine environments. Ameghiniana, Bertels-Psotka, A. E Frenguellicythere argentinensis, n. Micropaleontology, Brouwers, E Sediment transport detected from the analysis of ostracod population structure: an example from the Alaskan continental shelf.
En: P. Colin y J-P. Peypouquet eds. Applications of ostracoda R. Maddoks, ed. Houston Geosc. Ameghiniana, Ferrero, L. Hageman, S. Palaios, V 12 : Hageman, S. Ameghiniana, Moore, R. Treatise on Invertebrate Palaeontology. Part Q. Arthropoda 3. Crustacea, Ostracoda. Moyano, G. I Bryozoa from Antarctic Bays: some ecological aspects. In: Larwood, G. Figure 1. Studied area. Neocytherideis ruidis, B. Cyprideis salebrosa hartmanni, C. Caudites ohmerti, D. Cornucoquimba lutziana, E.
Loxocythere variasculpta, F. Callistocythere litoralensis, G. Pellucistoma elongata, H. Iliocypris gibba, I. Cypridopsis vidua, J. Limnocythere sp. College, Govt. The genus includes 2 species, the endemic H. A key to species and the relationship of the proposed new species is discussed. The former species is a new report from West Bengal. It appears that the Indian click beetles did not receive any serious attention till date. In spite of our sincere effort, we could record Heteroderus Latreille as the only representative of the subfamily Conoderinae.
The genus is found to include 2 species, an endemic H. Beside providing diagnosis of the genus and a key to species, both the species are suitably described and illustrated. The relationship of the proposed new species is also discussed. Collected samples were preserved following Chakraborty and Chakrabarti All measurements are in millimeters, made with an eye piece graticule. Head slightly inclined, more or less convex or almost flat, frons generally convex and round in front, nasal surface much broader.
Labrum entire, mandible bifurcate, last segment of maxillary palpi triangular. Antennae subserrate, 2 nd segment smallest and subcylindrical, 3 rd usually longer than 2 nd, always shorter than 4 th. Pronotum large, convex or almost flat, sides more or less arcuate, punctation double, posterior angle very elongate, uni or bicarinate, posterior margin entire or with lateral indents.
Scutellum rectangular or subpentagonal. Elytra proportionately short, round at distal extremities and acuminate. Prosternum round in front, prosternal spine descending between coxae, straight posteriorly. Metacoxal plates dialated in middle. Lamellae of 4 th tarsi narrow or broad.
Key to species: 1. Pronotum uniformly brown black, hind angles bicarinate; elytra astigmatic; parameres longer than median lobe with apex strongly narrow Heteroderes sericeus Candeze Figs. Liege, Description: Male. Body length: 5. Head brown black, pubescence silky white, dense.
Punctation double. Frons broader than long, flat. Anterior margin arcuate. Frontal carina complete across frons. Vertex slightly convex. Eyes pale brown, round, moderately large with distinct facets. Labrum brown black, broader than long, raised, anterior margin convex. Mandibles brown black, moderate, notched at the middle, tooth like. Antennae brown, moderately long, extending just before the hind angle of pronotum, basal segment robust, longest, 2 nd smallest, 3 rd shorter than 4 th, rest serrate and subequal, last segment constricted near apex, entirely, longitudinally carinate.
Scutellum subquadrate, brown black, convex, pubescence dense. Elytra 1. Prosternum brown black, convex, longer than broad, with distinct chin piece, punctation double. Prosternopleural suture straight. Prosternal spine long, emarginate, longitudinally sulcate, apically round. Only mesepimeron forming part of the margin of mesocoxal cavity. Abdomen brown black, punctation double, pubescence dense.
Legs pale black, moderately long, last segment of tarsi lamellate, lamella broad, claw simple, setae present at base of claw. Genitalia: Basal piece small, arms round at apex, anterior margin concave, posterior margin medially convex, lateral margin arcuate, uniformly sclerotized throughout; median lobe distally shorter than parameres, arms strongly sclerotized compared to rest, long, arcuate, blunt at base, not exceeding ventral posterior margin of parameres, median lobe nearly parallel sided, round at apex, furcae reaching upto the apex of median lobe; parameres uniformly sclerotized throughout, outer lateral margins weakly sinuate, basally broad, distally weakly concave, apex strongly narrow, pointed, with more than 19 hairs.
Material examined: see Sarkar et al. Heteroderes bicoloris sp. Body length: 3. Head dark brown, pubescence golden brown, dense, punctation double, frons broader than long, moderately convex, anterior margin arcute, frontal carina complete across frons, vertex slightly convex. Eyes brown black, round moderately large with distinct facets. Labrum brown, broader than long, raised, anterior margin convex.
Mandibles brown, moderate, apically acute. Antennae brown, broken. Scutellum subquadrate, medially light brown, marginally dark, convex, pubescence dense. Elytra 2. Prosternum brown, convex, longer than broad, with distinct chin piece, punctation double. Metacoxal plate broad, round in the middle. Abdomen brown, punctation simple, pubescence dense. Legs pale brown, moderately long, last tarsal segment lamellate, claw simple, setae present at base of claw.
Genitalia: Basal piece short, wide, arms round at apex, both anterior and posterior margins concave, lateral margin feebly arcuate, uniformly sclerotized throughout; median lobe as long as parameres, feebly sclerotized throughout, arms long, nearly straight, pointed at base, not exceeding ventral posterior margin of parameres, median lobe basal to median little incurved, median to apical gradually narrowing, apex round, furcae reaching the anterior margin of 35 Mun.
Remarks: The closest ally of the present species appears to be Heteroderes lenis Candeze but can be separated by 1. Hind angle of pronotum unicarinate hind angle of pronotum bicarinate in H. Each elytra with 3 light brown spots elytra without any spot in H. Elytra apically acute elytra apically round in H. Parameres apically round, directed outward parameres apically pointed, inwardly directed, in H.
Median lobe weakly longer than parameres median lobe shorter than parameres in H. Furcae reaching the anterior margin of parameres furcae not reaching the anterior margin of parameres in H. The species is therefore recognized as new to science. Etymology: The species is so named because of the bicolour nature of each part of the body. Sarkar, India, Occ. Paper no. Accessed on. Sarkar, S. Munis Ent. Genus, 18 2 : Vats, L.
K Systematics of Elateridae Coleoptera: Insecta. Final Technical Report, U. Vats, L. L Species of Conoderus Esch. Uttar Pradesh J. Dorsal habitus; 2. Pronotal puncture; 3. Elytral puncture; 4. Leg; 5. Claw; 6. Genitalia; Heteroderes bicoloris sp. Dorsal habitus; 8. Pronotal puncture; 9. Elytral puncture; Leg; Claw; Dorsal habitus; Genitalia; Images of Heteroderes bicoloris sp.
Of these species, 93 are residents, 82 summer migrants, 51 winter migrants and 37 transit migrants. According to IUCN criteria; Egyptian vulture Neophron percnopterus , saker falcon Falco cherrug and velvet scoter Melanitta fusca are in the endengared EN category; marbled teal Marmoronette angustirostris , great bustard Otis tarda , aquatic warbler Acrocephalus paludicola are in the vulnareble VU category and ferruginous duck Aythya nyroca , red kite Milvus milvus , pallid harrier Circus macrourus , red footed falcon Falco verpertinus , great snipe Gallinago media , rock partridge Alectoris graeca , black tailed godwit Limosa limosa , European roller Coracias garrulus , semi collared flycatcher Ficedula semitorquata are in the near thretaned NT category.
According to the records, it has been stated that bird species live in the world Anonymous, Cox indicated that there are bird species belonging families in the world, at least species from families migrate and this number constitutes approximately According to the records, number of the bird species in Turkey differ from each other.
The field was visited every two weeks and the observations were made in daytime generally after dawn until nightfall. Bird species in the field were 38 Mun. Records were kept through observations on certain spots and lines and species were determined. Identification books and voice records were used to determine the morphological characters of the species. Bird species observed in the study area were evaluated in four groups based on their observation times.
Accordingly; bird species that can be observed and reproduce all the year around are called Resident Birds R , bird species arriving to spend the winter are called Winter Migrant WM , bird species arriving to reproduce and spend the summer are called Summer Migrant SM and bird species observed while migrating are called Transit Migrant T. Bird species observation times in the valley, habitat characteristics and Endangered protection status categories were specified in this study.
In this study, field surveys were performed between the years of and Table 1. In addition to the characteristics of these species, their orders, families, names of species, migration status and protection status were also recorded Table 2. It has been determined that 93 of the species were resident, 82 were summer migrants, 51 were winter migrants and 37 were transit migrants. When species were evaluated according to the criteria of IUCN; Egyptian vulture Neophron percnopterus , saker falcon Falco cherrug and velvet scoter Melanitta fusca were in endangered EN category; marbled teal Marmoronette angustirostris , great bustard Otis tarda and aquatic warbler Acrocephalus paludicola were in vulnerable VU category; and ferruginous duck Aythya nyroca , red kite Milvus milvus , pallid harrier Circus macrourus , red-footed falcon Falco verpertinus , great Snipe Gallinago media , rock partridge Alectoris graeca , black-tailed godwit Limosa limosa , European roller Coracias garrulus and semi-collared flycatcher Ficedula semitorquata were in near threatened NT category.
Siberian stonechat Saxicola maurus was listed in the data deficient DD category. These numbers correspond to Birds must be preserved along with their habitats pursuant to the national and international regulations. Anonymous Accessed:. Baran, İ.
K Cernek. A new bird ringing station in Turkey. Ring, 27 1 : Bilgin, C. W Bird Migration and Global Change. Islandpress, Wahington. Bird Watcher s Guides Prion Ltd. Journal of Zoology, 2 : 40 Mun. Table 1. Singh and C. R Role of forest biodiversity in conservation of non-mulberry vanya silk in India. Biodiversity forms a still largely explored treasure that is severely endangered due to a huge amount of destructive human interventions. Changes in land use, habitat reduction and fragmentation, nutrient enrichment, and environmental stress, caused by human beings in the form of pollutants lead to reduced biological diversity on all levels genes, species, and communities and all functional roles.
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations estimated that about 13 million hectares an area roughly equivalent to the size of Greece, of the world s forests are cut down and converted to other land uses every year. The non-mulberry vanya silk industry is depending primarily on the productivity of forest eco-system. The vanya silkworm germplasm have several idiotypes and wild counterparts in nature. Due to their strong endemism, the metapopulation structures of these wild silkworms are highly sensitive to the present biodiversity crisis contributed by deforestation, fragmentation of forest land, environmental pollution and climate change.
The North East India is considered as the hotspot of ser-biodiversity with diverse forest based food plants and sericigenous insects which play a significant role in sustainable rural livelihood and poverty alleviation in the country. Globally India is the second largest producer of silk and contributes about The prospects for commercial exploitation of some perennial forest trees such Borpat, Ailanthus grandis, Borkesseru, Ailanthus excelsa and Maiphak, Evodia Tetradium meliaefolia in eri silk sector have documented in the present study.
The realistic approaches, strategies and intervention frameworks both short term and long term for conservation and commercial exploitation of vanya silkworm germplasm and their food plants have been discussed. The insect group comprises the largest diversity among all living organisms with 9. The species richness of most groups of organisms peaks in the tropics, with rainforests is being particularly diverse.
The maximum richness of plant species is mostly found near to the equator. Biodiversity forms a still largely explored treasure that is severely endangered due to a huge amount of destructive human actions. The current rate of species extinctions due to anthropogenic actions will result in the irreversible loss of genetic diversity, and likewise of metabolic construction plans.
It can be easily 47 Mun. Changes in land use, habitat reduction and fragmentation, nutrient enrichment, and environmental stress, caused by human beings in the form of pollutants, lead to reduced biological diversity on all levels genes, species, and communities and all functional roles.
It is evident from reports that since , the extinction rate was extraordinarily high with an annual extinction rate of 27, species, i. At this rate in AD, the number of plant species lost from the earth estimated as 40, The anthropogenic actions lead to the erosion of natural forest specially the tropical forest. Till , Norman Myer, a leading ecologist, estimated the loss of tropical forest ecosystem at km 2 per year. This might have increased manifold till date resulting in loss of habitats for many animals at the rate of 0.
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations FAO, estimated that about 13 million hectares an area roughly equivalent to the size of Greece- of the world s forests are cut down and converted to other land uses every year. Forest fragmentation can jeopardise the long term health and vitality of forest ecosystem. Forest fragmentation can also result in species loss as the size of a forest become too small to support a viable population of a certain plant or animal species, which is more prominent in South East Asian Countries including India Fig.
The North Eastern Region of India has got unique place in the silk map of the country producing all the four commercially exploited silk varieties namely, muga, eri tassar and mulberry silk. India is considered as hot spot of seribiodiversity particularly in case of non-mulberry vanya silk sector and the region has emerged as its epicentre.
The production and sustenance of different vanya silk varieties are directly as well as indirectly depend on forest trees, which are otherwise act as food plants for these silkworms. Hence the productivity of vanya silk depends on the health of the natural as well as artificial cultivated forest ecosystem. The original extent of primary vegetation of Indo-Burma region was 2,, Km 2, which has reduced to , km 2 in recent days, estimated at 4.
It has been reported that the large scale conversion of muga food plantations It is needless to mention that loss of a food plant is directly related to the loss of silkworm germplasm as well. Considering the above facts, it is high time to address the conservation and commercial exploitation of non-mulberry vanya silk host plants and silkworm germplasm to sustainable livelihood of different stakeholders of the silk industry. The food plant distribution and distinct climatic conditions of South East Asian countries impart congenial environment for occurrence and growth of the saturniid moths.
Jolly et al. Nassig et al. Hence, the saturniid as well as Antheraea biodiversity exists in NE Region. However, the diversity of wild sericigenous insects in the region is not fully explored. Ahmed et al. According to Peigler the domesticated eri silk worm, Samia ricini Donovan is not really a distinct species but a form derived from Samia canningi through centuries of selection for silk production which is distributed throughout the region.
Out of the above mentioned different sericigenous saturniid silk moths, only few silk moths namely, muga, Antheraea assamensis Helfer, eri, Samia ricini Donovan , Oak tasar, Antheraea proylei J. However, the species which require immediate attention for utilization in silk sector or any other viable sectors such food, pharmaceuticals etc. Fagara Silk Attacus atlas L. Lepidoptera: Saturniidae , a wild silk moth which is known as fagara silk Jolly et al.
The caterpillar of A. The natural incidence of A. The caterpillars voraciously feed on the leaves and in certain cases, the trees are completely defoliated. The average larval duration recorded 23 days during May-June period. After reaching cm in length, the caterpillar starts pupation in the plant covering with mature leaves. The brown colored cocoons are formed by spinning a silky covering taking around hours that is interwoven with desiccated leaves.
The adult emerges from the pupa in the early morning hours and total pupal period was recorded 22 days. The average cocoon weight g was and for female and male, respectively. The average shell weight of single cocoon g recorded 2. The adult longevity was days. The females are sexually passive, only releasing pheromones to attract a male for mating.
After emergence of moths, the coupling of male and female moth continued for hours and started egg laying on the underside of leaves or the bark of the trees. Eggs are around mm in diameter and the caterpillar hatched from the eggs after days during summer season.
The Japanese designers have developed diversified products out of the Attacus spun yarn in recent days. Wild eri silk moth Samia canningi Hutton : Samia canningi is a moth of the Saturniidae family. It is found in south-eastern Asia and China. The wingspan is mm. The larvae mainly feed on Ailanthus altissima, Prunulaurocerasus, Ligustrum and Syringa species. It has been found highly polyphagous like domesticated S. Pupation takes place in a silken cocoon on the leaves of the tree in outdoor condition.
Cocoons are compact and brown in colour. The average cocoon weight and shell weight is 3. The shell ratio recorded is The natural incidence is observed throughout the year with peak incidence during May-June. Kotia September-October. The smallest wild saturniid silk also feeds mango, cashewnut, pepper, tea, litchi and ber etc. Indonesia is well known for its silk textile derived from wild silkworm cocoon of Cricula trifenestrata. Cricula trifenestrata produces golden silk floss which is very luxurious and amazing.
Besides, spun yarn is used for production of diverse fabrics, the use of discarded sericin of Cricula trifenestrata cocoon extract from the water waste of silk textile industry as biomaterials will be beneficial for the local silk textile industry and also the development of natural biomaterials as bone substitute Sunarintyas et al.
Germplasm of Eri silkworm Eri silkworm Samia ricini Donovan under the family Saturniidae is the only domesticated, multivoltine and polyphagous silkworm among the vanya silks. Eri silkworm is the hardiest species among commercially exploited silkworms. North East India is considered as the centre of origin for eri silkworm, Samia ricini Donovan.
Over the period of a decade annual production of Eri raw silk has significantly increased to MT in from MT in About 1. Brahmaputra valley of Assam and its adjoining foot hills in the Sub- Himalayan belt is believed to be the native place of eri. The silkworm name of 'Eri' derives from the Assamese word 'Era' which means castor the main food plant of eri silkworm. The history of silk in Brahmaputra valley can be traced back to the vedic literature around BC.
Budhist visitor, Hieun Tsang mentioned in his writing Suvarnkusi Sualkuchi as an important silk producing centre. King Harsha Vardhana of Kaunuj imported silk from Assam for making his royal dresses. The structure of the genitalia, wing pattern and chromosome number demonstrates that Samia ricini Donovan is derived from its wild form, Samia canningi Hutton.
Listing of passport data of all accessions available in the GPB is presented Table. Analysis of the growth and economic traits of cocoon of different eri silkworm races revealed that eri silkworm accession viz. Six pure line strains of eri silkworm had been selected and crossed following the diallel crossing technique and analyzed following Griffing s method.
After combining ability studies among the six pure line strains two eri crosses viz. Field trial of two eri crosses revealed better performance in ES-1 in terms of fecundity, hatching, cocoon weight, shell weight, shell ratio, and yield Table 2.
To develop high yielding breed of eri silkworm in term of shell weight and fecundity utilizing the ecoraces like Borduar and Genung is under progress Sinha, These huge forest bio-resources may effectively be utilized for conservation and economic exploration of sericigenous insects for sustainable rural livelihood and poverty alleviation which is the major issue of developing country including India.
The productivity improvement in mulberry sericulture sector is stagnant in spite of technological intervention in silkworm improvement as well as host plant management. However, growth rate of vanya silk is quite encouraging The North Eastern states, Jharkhand and Chattisgarh states of India are primarily dominated by tribal populations. The vanya silks are practiced mostly by these tribal and socio economically disadvantaged sections of the society.
Considering these facts, the Government of India under Forest Conservation Act, has issued notification in respect of vanya silk cultivation. However, priority should be given to the tribals and to those enjoy traditional rights on such forests.
Cultivation of trees on which vanya Silks or silk worms of Tasar, Oak Tasar, Muga, Eri and Frithi could be reared by tribals and non-tribals living in and around the forest areas for their livelihood without undertaking monoculture plantations should be traded as forestry activity. Therefore, no prior permission of the Central Government under Forests Conservation Act, is required.
Eri-silkworm Samia ricini Donovan is highly polyphagous in nature feeding on a number of host plants viz. Further, one forest tree popularly known as Maiphak, Evodia Tetradium meliaefolia Benth under the family Rutaceae has been recorded as an alternative food plant of eri silkworm Fig.
Most of these plants are grown in natural forest in N. Region of India as well as in other parts of the country. Some of the perennial food plants covered under the projects is highlighted below. Tree of Heaven Ailanthus species : Ailanthus derived from ailanto, an Ambonese word probably meaning "tree of the gods" or "tree of heaven" is a genus of trees belonging to the family Simaroubaceae.
The genus is native from East Asia south to northern Australasia. They are fast-growing deciduous trees growing to m tall, with spreading branches and large cm pinnate leaves with long pointed leaflets, the terminal leaflet normally present, and the basal pairs of leaflets often lobed at their bases.
The number of species is disputed, with some authorities accepting up to ten species, while others accept six or fewer. There are four to five species are available in India, which is distributed though out the country. A silk spinning moth, the Ailanthus moth, Samia cynthia feeds on Ailanthus leaves, and yields a silk more durable and cheaper than mulberry silk, but inferior to it in fineness and gloss.
This type of silk is known under various names: "pongee", "eri silk" and "Shantung silk", the last name being derived from Shandong Province in China where this silk is often produced. Its production is particularly well known in the Yantai region of that province.
The moth was also introduced in the United States Li, Other Lepidoptera whose larvae feed on Ailanthus include Endoclita malabaricus. Several species of Lepidoptera utilize the leaves of ailanthus as food, including the Indian moon moth Actias selene and the common grass yellow Eurema hecabe. In North America the tree is the host plant for the ailanthus webworm Atteva aurea. In its native range A. The number of species of Ailanthus is disputed, with some authorities accepting up to ten species, while others accept six or fewer.
The different Ailanthus species and their distribution are presented in the Table 2. Chowdhury reported that four species exist in India, such as; A. The first one is found in northern India, the second in Arunachal Pradesh, the third in Kashmir and the last one in Malabar Coast.
In addition to its use as an ornamental plant, the tree of heaven is also used for its wood, medicinal properties and weed management. There are different genotypes of Ailanthus found in nature. The present study on distribution of Ailanthus germplasm indicates that A.
Region i. Further, Ailanthus excelsa and A. Circars, forest of Tamilnadu. It is often planted along the roads Kumar et. The present study also reflects that the distribution of A. Region only such as Kimin forest areas, Chessa forest and adjoining foothills and West Siang district, Tinsukia district, Manas forest area and Nambor reserve forest.
The phyto-chemical studies on A. Phukan et al. Use of A. Narayanswamy et al. Hence, borkesseru could be exploited as suitable substitute for castor to rear eri silkworm. Saritha et al. The present preliminary studies on evaluation of perennial food plants indicate that rearing performances ERR, cocoon weight, shell weight and fecundity of eri silkworm feeding on Ailanthus grandis Borpat and Ailanthus excelsa Borkesseru is better than Heteropanax fragrans Kesseru Table 3.
Further, Borpat and Borkesseru can be utilized throughout the year unlike Kesseru which shows comparative poor performance during summer crop June- July. As castor leaf is not available throughout the year in farmer s field, the Borpat and Borkesseru are the best alternatives for sustainable eri silkworm rearing. The data reflects that the biomass production in Ailanthus species is much higher than other perennial food plants and castor. Hence, utilization of Ailanthus plant in the eri silkworm may improve the rearing capacity of eri silkworm rearers by times which is required for commercialization of the ericulture Table 4.
Further, Ailanthus species are forest based trees, so it may explored for livelihood security to the forest dwellers that are otherwise depend on tree felling causing large scale deforestation. Strategies of conservation of sericigenous biodiversity Collection and maintenance of data bank on taxonomy, phenology, habitat preference, breeding system, and minimum population size of the sericigenous wild germplasms along with mapping of population, information on density within the site and interaction of species with the surrounding environments.
Besides exploration of improved breed out of the existing eco-races of eri silkworm, it is also important of other concept of aiming at collection and maintenance of new species of eri silk moths from the field, if any, may be important from the standpoint of new concept for the future.
It is well known that improvement of production and productivity of eri silk moths using existing stock in the laboratory is surely important, but 54 Mun. Because they are useful for development of new textiles with characteristic properties we cannot find elsewhere but in India or finding eri silk moths with extremely short life cycle, if any, is a source for future development. The genetic resources are renewable in nature or in similar ex- situ conservation with their proper management can fulfill human needs in larger extent.
Proper inventorization of seri-biodiversity is need of the hour to productivity enhancement. Development and strengthening of in situ mechanism for seribiodiversity conservation in forest and outside the protected areas. Involvement of local communities, general public and scientific professionals for protection of the reserve.
Further, strengthening of social capital of primary stakeholders should be emphasized for protection of seri-diversity as well as its sustainable utilization. Uutilization of eri pupae in health and food industry is another promising filed for exploitation. Sumida had been supporting making medicinal mushrooms on Bombyx pupae to make so called winter insect summer grass in a company in Japan. The company now sells the products as health foods. We believe some efforts will be needed to culture the medicinal mushrooms on eri pupae.
Seri-biodiversity refers to the variability in sericigenous insects and their host plants, which are economically and ecologically important biodiversity and by and large, forest based. There are several wild sericigenous insects and their host plants, which are abundant in the North Eastern and sub-himalayan regions and other parts of the country. However, only five types of sericigenous insects are commercially exploited in India and there remains a great scope for producing novel silk from Cricula trifenestrata and Attacus atlas etc.
The importance of these lesser known silk producing insects and their host plants should be studies and explored for betterment of mankind. It is now essential for India to develop allied industries related to sericulture and make total use of the food plants and silkworm for different products, particularly pharmaceutical products.
Being forest based, the wild silkworms contribute to the development of sustainable natural environment, which is very much required these days, since ozone layer is very much in threat due to rapid industrialization and other man made hazards. Compendium of Seminar Papers. K Exploration of vanya silk biodiversity in North Eastern Region of India: Sustainable livelihood and poverty alleviation. N Biology and feeding behavior of Cricula trifenestrata Helf.
J Taxonomic studies of some of the Indian non-mulberry silk moths Lepidoptera: Saturniidae. I, Encyclopedia of Life Support System. Chinnaswamy, K. P Sericulture biodiversity in India. Fonarem, Kathmandu, Nepal. Chowdhury, S. V Field trial of elite crosses of eri silkworm. Indian Silk, June: Dhanasekaran, S.
In female albino rats. T Magnitude and Distribution of Biodiversity. In: Heywood, V. Hazarika, L. Non-mulberry silkworm and host plants: strategies for maintenance, pp Hazarika, L. Biochemists, Nov , , pp Hughes, J. R Population diversity: its extension and extinction.
Science, Jolly, M. S Non-mulberry silks. United Nations, Services Bulletin, Rome, Joshi, B. Fitoterapia, Kakati, L. C Diversity and ecology of wild sericigenous insects in Nagaland, India. Tropical Ecology, 50 1 : Koopowitz, H. Christopher Helm, London. Kumar, D. S Ailanthus excelsa Roxb. International Journal of Pharmacology, 6 5 : Li, H. Flora of Taiwan, Volume 3: Hamamelidaceae-Umbelliferea 2nd ed. Loizzo, M. Phytotherapy Research, May, R.
E Assessing extinction rates. In: Extension Rates eds. Lawton, J. Oxford University Press, London. Drury House, London. Myers, N. Nature, Nag, A. Simaroubacae , a Promising Source of Leaf Protein. Heterocera Sumatrana, Ogura, M. R Potential anticancer agents VI. Constituents of Ailanthus excelsa Simaroubaceae.
Lloydia, Peigler, R. S Wild silks of the world. American Entomologist, 39L: Peigler, R. Phukan, J. Indian J. R S, 24S, Trihydroxytirucallene from Ailanthus excelsa. Phytochemistry, Shrimali, M. P Antibacterial activity of Ailanthus excelsa Roxb.
Phytotherapy Research, Singh, K. Srivastava, P. Thangavelu Sericulture and Seri biodiversity. Associated Publishing Company, New Delhi. Sinha, B. B Development of eri silkworm Samia ricini Donovan breed with higher fecundity and shell weight. Sunarintyas, S. A need for conservation. Wild Silk moths, Thangavelu, K. K Wild silk moths diversity and conservation. S The Dictionary of Butterflies and Moths in colour. Peerage Books, London, England.
Wilson, E. O The Diversity of Life. Norton, New York. Zheng, H. Global Forest Fragmentation. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 7. Figure 8. Listing of Passport data of eri silkworm accessions. Table 2. Distribution of different Ailanthus species. The aim of this study was to determine aphid species in citrus orchards.
While Aphis craccivora was found widespread, Brachycaudus Acaudus cardui was found rarely. The main species of citrus genus include citrus Citrus aurantium , orange C. Fruits of citrus plant are used as food. Both their fruits are used as nutrition and their fruit shells, leaves and flowers are used for perfumery industry.
Some citrus pests are restrictive factors in citrus production. Aphids are one of the important pests of citrus. They are especially pest in nurseries. Their mouthparts are sucking and they cause a curling of the plant leaves. Aphids may also transmit viruses from plant to plant. The aim of this study was to determine aphid species in citrus orchards of Antalya province in Turkey. Samplings were made on citrus branchs, leaves and flowers between Surveys were done two times in spring and summer months and a time in autumn and winter months.
Samples were more frequently collected in shoot periods in different areas and orchards. Preparation procedures of aphids were made according to Hille Ris Lambers There is a reticulated plate on the shiny dorsal surface of body. Eyes are blackish red, proboscis is pale greenish yellow at base and dusky colored at apex. First and 2 nd antennal segments are black, 3 rd and 4 th segments are cream colored and 5 th segment blacky and 6 th segment is black.
Distal of tarsus and tibia in the legs are close to dark in blackish colour and another parts are with creamy beige colour. Siphunculi, cauda and genital plate are black. Body length is about 1. Proboscis is long and a little longer than second coxa. Average length of antenna is about 1. First antennal segment is wide and its length is almost as long as second segment. Other segments are thin and long.
There is a primer rhinaria on 5 th and 6 th segments. There is not seconder rhinaria at 3 rd segment. Tarsus has two segments like another aphid species and apex segment has one pair claw and there are hairs on segments.
The spinculi is cylindirical, thinning towards to apex and it makes a lip-shaped convolution. Cauda s long and with spinal structure. There are bristle on cauda. Genital plate are also with bristle. Alate viviparous female; body is longly oval shaped and completely dark brownish black in colour. Eyes are close to blackish red colour, proboscis is pale greenish at basement and dusky colored at apex.
Firts two segments of antenna and distal of other segments are with dark colour and other parts are with creamy beige colour. Except the distal of coxa and tibia, legs are light brown beige in colour.
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