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A vehicle and a weapon are integral parts of his plan to commit murder. Sarah is guilty of being an accomplice to murder under PC 31, accomplice liability theory. Closely Related Offenses California Penal Code 32, accessory after the fact; This crime is committed if you choose to aid, hide, or harbor someone who has committed a felony in order to prevent them from being arrested, sent to trial, convicted, or otherwise legally punished.
This is a wobbler offense, meaning you can face either a misdemeanor or a felony depending on the severity of the crime committed and the extent of your aid. PC 32 has similarities to PC 31, in that you must have had knowledge of the crime and aided the person in getting away with it.
The main difference between these two statutes is when you gained knowledge of the crime and how you helped the perpetrator. The main criteria for a PC 32 offense are: You knew the perpetrator had committed a felony, You hid, harbored, or aided them after the commission of the crime, With the intent to prevent them from being arrested, sent to trial, convicted, imprisoned, or face other legal penalties. Accessory after the fact and PC , Murder You will face a PC 32 offense if you aid another person in getting away with murder.
Aiding the fugitive makes you an accessory to murder. You commit this crime by hiding or helping the perpetrator escape legal punishment, by aiding them in destroying evidence of the fact or making false statements to protect them from a lawful conviction. Murder is a felony. Although you did not commit the crime itself, helping the criminal get away with it will likely result in felony consequences under PC California Penal Code , criminal conspiracy; This law is violated when someone agrees with one or more individuals to commit a crime, AND at least two members of the party commit act s to further the agreement.
Aiding and abetting in the commission of a crime is not the same as taking part in planning one. Being guilty of criminal conspiracy means the defendant: Agreed with one or more individuals to commit a crime, and You planned to commit a crime with them. A member of the party took an overt-act to advance said plans. An overt-act means active steps were taken to help accomplish the plan. This does not necessarily mean the overt-act itself was the crime, but instead just one part of it.
Criminal conspiracy to commit PC , murder You commit this crime if you are guilty of PC , criminal conspiracy AND the crime you and your cohorts were planning was murder. PC is a felony and a conviction carries a potential life sentence in state prison. You do not actually have to succeed in killing someone to be guilty.
In fact, if steps were taken to bring the group you and 1 or more conspirators closer to the act, you can face felony consequences for PC If the attempt was actually made to maliciously kill another person, attempted murder will be added to the list of charges. Associated Offenses Aiding another person before or during the commission of a crime will land you with a PC 31 charge.
Providing support for this person after the fact also carries legal punishments. Helping with a cover-up, destroying evidence, or making false statements in relation to a crime are known as obstruction of justice. Here just a few of those laws that are similar to aiding and abetting. California PC , Offering false evidence; This crime is committed if you knowingly provide false evidence in the form of a written document or record, during an investigation, trial, or inquiry.
California PC , Preparing false evidence; You are guilty of this crime if you prepare false evidence and intend to use it fraudulently during any type of legal proceeding. California PC , Destroying evidence; Willfully destroying or hiding evidence that might be relevant to an investigation, trial, inquiry, or other legal proceeding is a crime.
California PC California PC , Resisting or obstructing a peace officer; This law makes it a crime to willfully resist or obstruct a police officer or EMT emergency medical technician from performing their official duty. California PC , Murder; You break this law if you unlawfully and with malice, kill another person or fetus. The Prosecution Aiding and abetting is commonly known as accomplice liability. It is a theory in which, arguably, someone who assists in a crime, no matter how trivial that aid is, should be held accountable to the crime that was committed.
Under this principle, the facts of the case are an integral part of the prosecution getting a conviction. Were you under a lawful duty to share your knowledge of a crime or to prevent it? There are instances in which failing to act before or during the commission of a crime is indicative of just how indifferent you were to that crime. Being under a lawful duty to stop a crime from happening does depend on who you are and what you did before and after the crime was committed.
Examples of who can face aiding and abetting: A police officer witnessed a man fire their rifle into a crowd of innocent people. Instead of stopping the shooter, he waves them aside and allows them to hop into a vehicle and drive away.
As a member of law enforcement, he chose not to act and it gave the perpetrator enough time to drive off. The officer was under a lawful duty to act because that is his profession, yet he failed to do anything. This can technically result in the officer facing an aiding and abetting offense.
There will be disciplinary action when you choose to ignore a crime taking place while you are under a sworn legal duty to do your job. A parent watches their 5-year-old get physically battered by a teenage cousin and did nothing to put a stop to it. As a parent, they are legally responsible for the well-being of their child which includes their physical and mental health. This parent simply watched as their small child was being beaten.
Failing to put an end to the abuse as soon as they learned of it or preventing it from happening could result in the parent facing an aiding and abetting child abuse offense. Do you have to be present at the scene of the crime? You do not have to be present at the scene of the crime to be guilty of aiding and abetting in that crime.
Example of who can be charged: Quinn was planning a bank robbery and had a crew to assist him. Leon wanted to participate, but could not be physically present. To help occupy the police in the area, he made false bomb threats to three locations on the opposite side of town. This impacted the police response time to the bank robbery which gave Quinn and his crew ample time to escape.
Leon could still face aiding and abetting bank robbery charges under PC 31, even though he was not at the scene of the crime. This means he will face the same penalties Quinn and his crew will get under PC , California felony robbery. Leon will also face multiple offenses for making false bomb threats under PC Can you be guilty if you were legally incapable of acting in the crime yourself?
Even if you are not capable of committing the crime, either legally or physically, you can still face an aiding and abetting offense. Remember, although some instances of aid might seem insubstantial, it all depends on what you did or said. All of your actions in relation to the crime can be analyzed under this accomplice liability theory. Some common examples of aiding and abetting, in which you face the same penalties as the crime that was committed are: If you provide verbal or gestural support for the perpetrator, If you give resources, tools, equipment, or information that you know will be used to commit a crime, Acted as a look-out during the commission of the crime, Drove the get-away car, Left the engine running, or Purposely left a door or window unlocked.
Example of who can be charged: Audrey is a paraplegic and uses a wheelchair. She knows her husband kidnaps women and locks them in the basement. She can hear the victims screaming for help, but does nothing to help them. Worried the neighbors will hear the screams, she regularly turns up the volume on her TV to drown them out. When her husband is finally arrested, she claims she knew nothing.
Although Audrey did not help kidnap these women, she knew about the crimes her husband was committing and chose not to report it. She also chose to maliciously silence the women by telling them to shut up and turning up the volume so they could not be heard by passersby. Audrey could be held accountable for aiding and abetting in the kidnappings, regardless of her physical disabilities. Legal Defense Challenging aiding and abetting charges means you have to prove you were not an accomplice to the crime that took place.
This can be difficult to do without the help of a legal professional. An expert defense attorney will be able to recognize what the best legal defense would be to fight these charges on your behalf. The following are just some of the common legal defenses used to dispute a PC 31, accomplice liability accusation. Elements Necessary to Prove Aiding and Abetting in California No matter how minor or serious a criminal offense may seem, every person is innocent until proven guilty beyond a reasonable doubt.
If you are accused of a certain crime due to aiding and abetting, the prosecutor in the case must prove that: The perpetrator did commit the crime The defendant person charged with aiding and abetting was fully aware that the perpetrator intended to commit the crime in question Prior to or during the crime being committed, you the aider and abettor intended to assist the perpetrator in the commission of the crime, and Your conduct or words did in fact aid and abet the perpetrator's commission of the crime Because you were present at the scene where a crime was perpetrated does not mean you were aiding and abetting.
In fact, prosecutors will frequently claim that your "mere presence" at the crime scene indicated that you appeared to be on the lookout for the perpetrator, or were there in a capacity to be additional "muscle. By encouraging, facilitating, or aiding in the commission of a crime in any way, you may be criminally liable. The criminal penalties if convicted for aiding and abetting someone who commits a crime will be the same as the actual perpetrator faces.
For instance, if you were involved in a crime in which the victim was murdered, you may face punishment of life in prison, the same sentence which would likely be handed down to the actual perpetrator of the crime. If the perpetrator committed arson by setting fire to another person's property and you were an accomplice, you and the perpetrator may face up to three years in prison. The penalties you face depend on the actual crime committed.
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