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First, redisplay is invoked by crypto, the top-level procedure, to draw the screen initially. At this time, no letters have been guessed yet. Therefore, it is not necessary to invoke showclear which indicates the guessed letters in the bottom part of the display. Crypto executes the instruction redisplay "false to avoid that unnecessary work.

Redisplay is also invoked by moretext, lesstext, and showclear. Each of these procedures uses the instruction redisplay "true to include showcode. If the flag variable weren't used, there would have to be two different versions of redisplay. I used the latter technique in the procedures bind and qbind. These could also have been one procedure with a flag variable input. The advantage of the technique used in redisplay is that it makes the program easier to read by reducing the number of procedures, and keeping similar purposes together.

The advantage of using two procedures is that it's a little faster, because you don't have to test the flag variable with if. A flag variable is somewhat analogous to a predicate, a procedure that always outputs true or false. The advantage of using these particular values for flag variables is that they're easy to test; you can say if :flag [do.

The special variable redefp that controls redefinition of primitives in some versions of Logo, including Berkeley Logo, is an example. I'm somewhat uncomfortable with that practice because to me it raises a confusion about whether a particular word is the name of a variable or the name of a procedure. I'd rather put flag in the names of flag variables. The 26 boundx variables in this program are also flag variables; each is true if the corresponding letter has been guessed as the cleartext half of a binding.

They don't have "flag" in their names, but their names aren't used directly in most of the program anyway. Instead they are hidden behind data abstraction procedures. Setbound and setunbound are used to set any such variable true or false, respectively; the selector boundp alerts you by the P in its name that it's a predicate. Iteration Over Letters One of the ways in which I simplified the program for this edition was to replace some recursive helper procedures with invocations of foreach.

At several points in the program, some action must be taken for each letter in a word, or for each word in the text. Another kind of iteration problem that was not so easily solved by the standard higher order procedures in Berkeley Logo was one in which some action must be taken, not for each letter in a word, but for each letter in the alphabet, or for some subset of the alphabet, as in the case of showrow, which displays one row of the top part of the screen, with information about five consecutive letters.

I wanted to be able to specify the starting and ending letters, as in this example: to alphabet setcursor [6 6] forletters "A "Z [ifelse boundp? The difficulty in implementing forletters is to get from one letter to the next. How does a program know that the letter after A is B? Its output is the number that represents that letter in the computer's memory. It's pronounced "ask E.

But in the template input to forletters, I want the question mark to represent a letter, not its numeric code. Char is the inverse operation to ascii. Given a number that is part of the ASCII sequence, char outputs the character that that number represents.

For example:? Adding 1 to an ASCII code to get the code for the next letter depends on the fact that the numbers representing the letters are in sequence. Not all computer representations for characters have this property. In this program I've used the primitive operation uppercase to translate every character that the program reads into upper case, just to be sure that each letter has only one representation.

Computed Variable Names Another programming technique that is heavily used in this project is the use of word to compute variable names dynamically. Ordinarily, you assign a value to a variable named var with an instruction like make "var 87 and you look at the value of the variable with the expression :var But in this project, there are variables for each letter, with names like posna, posnb, posnc, and so on. To assign a value to these variables, the program doesn't use 26 separate instructions like make "posna [0 0] Each of these variables contains a list of screen coordinates for use with setcursor to find the corresponding letter in the top part of the display.

Instead, the procedure showrow, which draws that section of the display, contains the instruction forletters :from :to [setposn? Instead, thing is invoked explicitly: to posn :letter output thing word "posn :letter end Another point to consider is that I could have used a different approach altogether, instead of using word to piece together a variable name. For instance, I could have used property lists: to setposn :letter :thing pprop "posn :letter :thing end to posn :letter output gprop "posn :letter end As it happens, I first wrote this project in Atari Logo, which didn't have property list primitives.

So the question didn't arise for me. In a version of Logo that does support property lists, I see no stylistic reason to prefer one approach over the other. It's entirely a question of which is more efficient. Which is faster, searching through a list of 26 times 2 members times 2 because each property has a name and a value or concatenating strings with word to generate the name of a variable that can then be examined quickly?

I'd have to experiment to find out. Alternatively, instead of using posn as the name of a property list and the letters as names of properties, I could reverse the two roles. That would give me more lists, but shorter lists. What is a stylistic issue is that using procedures like posn and setposn to isolate the storage mechanism from the rest of the program makes the latter easier to read. Further Explorations I have three suggestions about how to extend this project.

The first is to put in more rules by which the program can make guesses automatically. Sequences of letters within a word can also be tallied; TH is a common two-letter sequence, for example. A double letter in the cryptogram is more likely to represent OO than HH. If you have many rules in the program, there will be situations in which two rules lead to contradictory guesses.

One solution is just to try the most reliable rule first, and ignore a new guess if it conflicts with an old one. Qbind applies this strategy by means of the instruction if letterp thing :from [stop] which avoids adding a guess to the data base if the cryptogram letter is already bound to a cleartext letter.

Another solution would be to let the rules "vote" about guesses. If the program had many rules, it might happen that three rules suggest that F represents E, while two rules suggest that W represents E. In this case, three rules outvote two rules, and the program would guess that F represents E. The second direction for exploration in this program is to try to make it more efficient.

For example, every time you make a guess, showclear is invoked to redisplay the partially decoded text. Much of this redisplay is unnecessary, since most of the guesses haven't changed. How can you avoid the necessity to examine every letter of the cryptogram text? One possibility would be to keep a list, for every letter in the text, of the screen positions in which that letter appears. Then when a new guess is made, the program could just type the corresponding cleartext letter at exactly those positions.

The cost of this technique would be a lot of storage space for the lists of positions, plus a slower version of showcode, which would have to create these position lists. The third direction for further exploration is to find out about more complicated ciphers. For example, suppose you started with a simple substitution cipher, but every time the letter A appeared in the cleartext you shifted the corresponding cryptogram letters by one. That is, if E is initially represented by R, the first time an A appears you'd start using S to represent E.

They can see the code and the numbers of words and letters in the quote but have no other information. No letter is provided from the beginning. If they need any help, the players can use up to two hints to reveal 2 correspondences.

A letter in the code only has one alphabetical correspondence. Repeated letters will light up in a different color as a warning. For example, if an F is being used as the right correspondence for both an A and a T, then the F will be highlighted. A victory message will appear when the quote is correctly decoded. If no message is displayed, then there must be an error somewhere in the puzzle.

Please recheck the code and reread the cryptoquote to ensure it is grammatically correct and every word is rightly spelled. You can solve as many cryptograms online as you want on our website. There is no daily limit and all our cryptogram puzzles are free.

Additionally, every puzzle is set as a printable cryptogram so you can take it with you anywhere and try to solve it the traditional way, with pen and paper. How to solve a cryptogram When trying to solve a cryptogram puzzle it is always good to keep a few strategies in mind as well as your own knowledge of the English language. Look for contractions and possessives: these can help you reduce your options to decode up to two letters.

Unless the quote is archaic or poetic, these are the only options you need to focus on. Consider the digraphs: these are pairs of letters that can be often found together. Do not forget about common beginnings and endings: the longer the quote or the words it contains the harder it is to solve the cryptogram.

Check whose quote it is: knowing the person behind the quote can give you some hints. For example, if you know that it comes from Martin Luther King Jr. For more detailed strategies to beat any puzzle, be sure to check our blog article on tips for solving cryptograms.

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Each page of puzzles has 4 separate puzzles and each puzzle has a separate letter substitution. The words in each lists are all closely related to the title of each list and each list is related to the greater theme of the page. For example, If the page is all about food, then the titles of the crypto-lists might be Soups, Salads, Snack Foods, and Fruit. Each theme set of crypto-lists has to pages of puzzles and a page with the solutions.

The first page has 4 puzzles that each need to be solved separately. The puzzles are created in theme sets of related topics. Each page of cryptogram puzzles has 3 puzzles per page, each related to a single theme. Each page of crypto-families puzzles has 4 per page, based on 4 topics of a common theme.

Choose a theme and choose the puzzle type and enjoy the printable puzzles. For example, four topics of cryptograms related to the cat theme could be general characteristics, breeds, cats in fictions, and Garfield. Printable Cryptograms As mentioned above, a cryptogram puzzle is a short paragrah of text that is encrypted with letter substitutions.

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1. Cockatoos 2. Parakeets. AdInvest your retirement funds in Bitcoin, Ethereum, Solana, Cardano, Sushi, and + more. With 24/7 trading and investment minimums as low as $10, it’s so easy to get started. Printable Cryptogram Puzzles and Crypto Families. These printable crypto-families, or crypto lists as they are also known, letter substitutions to encrypt lists of related words. Each page of puzzles has 4 separate puzzles and each puzzle has a separate letter substitution. The words in each lists are all closely related to the tit See more.